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Ajax Development Patterns
 
Asynchronous JavaScript and XML techniques employ the power of the client browser for much of the processing load of a website. Common AJAX patterns include:

 Browser-Side Templating - a separation of the code that produces a view of data from the data itself. Hidden templates are embedded in pages destined for the client browser and populated with data upon demand by the client. The browser contains a markup builder function and client callback function which processes data retrieved from the server.

 The HTML Message Pattern - Like the Browser-Side Templating pattern, markup or JSON objects are generated in response to the client request. This markup is generated by the server and sent as a callback to the client.

 Cross-Domain Proxy - Browsers implement security policies to prohibit web service requests in domains outside of the current site. A cross-domain proxy is implemented on the server to proxy a connection to a remote web service.

 Heartbeat - Most web applications are designed to use sessions that time out after a predefined period of time. Since AJAX applications do most of their work on the client, a heartbeat message informs the server that the session is still alive.

 Microlink - Pages often need chunks of data from other parts of the site. A microlink generates the chunks of needed markup and streams them to the client browser.

 On-Demand JavaScript - pages often suffer the overhead of preloading all the JavaScript that is required for the page. The on-demand pattern loads JavaScript as it is needed to speed page loads and reduce server overhead.

 Page Arrangement - Page Arrangement is the pattern of utilizing the client side document object model (DOM) to create and display page elements.

 Periodic Refresh - Use of browser-side timeouts to schedule periodic page refreshes.

 Popup - This pattern is a web version of the ubiquitous dialog box. A popup window displays temporary HTML content in front of existing content.

 Predictive Fetch - This pattern consists of a predictive algorithm to anticipate user request for data so that the data can be preloaded. The cost is high resource utilization.

 Progress Indicator - Server requests can require a lengthy period of time to complete. The progress indicator pattern is a client side approach to monitoring server progress.

 Submission Throttling - One potential AJAX issue is that requests overwhelm the server. In some cases scalability is diminished. Throttling involves timing accumulated requests and caching results locally.

 Timeout - In cases of operations that use a large amount of server resources, this pattern involves timing out a request and continuing only upon a renewal.

 Unique URLs - AJAX pages change state without changing URL. The Unique URL pattern is a method of assigning a hash to the current instance of a page when something significant changes. The hashed URL is injected into the browser's history cache. If the user clicks a back button, the requested URL's hash can be retrieved so that a previous state can be recalled.
 
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Improve Your Security Vocabulary

  SQL Injection Attack - A hacker enters a line of SQL code into an input field to attempt to cause a database server to perform an unintended action

  HTML Injection Attack - A hacker enters a line of HTML code into an input field to attempt to cause a web page to display inappropriate data

  Script Exploit - A hacker enters a line of javaScript code into an input field to attempt to cause a web page to display inappropriate data or perform an inappropriate action.
 

Responsibility Driven Design
Developed by Rebecca Wirfs-Brock in the late 1980's, the principles of Responsibility Driven Design (RDD) are applied to a system of components in order to assess responsibilities of the objects that comprise the whole. Object responsibilities are categorized as "knowing", "doing", or "deciding." RDD is a lightweight modeling tool that identifies six object stereotypes:

 Information Holder - an object consisting of information/data and perhaps methods to make calculations on the data.

 Structurer - An object that maintains relationships between other objects.

 Controller - An object that controls and directs other objects and decides what other objects should do.

 Coordinator - An object that relates to events and relays events to other objects.

 Service Provider - An object that performs a service for other objects upon request.

 Interfacer - An object that provides a mechanism for communications with other parts of the system or the user.

Another modeling technique closely linked to RDD is called CRC (Candidate/Responsibility/Collaborator). CRC utilizes 3 x 5 index cards to model objects and their behaviors. RDD and CRC are tools to assist developers as they design software systems.
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